Author(s) should avoid the research and publication misconduct. If some cases of research and publication misconduct occur within each step of submission, review, edition or publication, journals have the right to legal action. The cases are listed as below:
● Fabrication : Fabrication is the practice of inventing data or results and reporting them in the research. Both of these misconducts are fraudulent and seriously alter the integrity of research. Therefore, articles must be written based on original data and use of falsified or fabricated data is strongly prohibited.
● Falsification : Falsification is the practice of omitting or altering research materials, equipment, data, or processes in such a way that the results of the research are no longer accurately reflected in the research record.
● Plagiarism : Plagiarism is the act of taking someone else's writing, conversation, idea, claims or even citations without any acknowledgment or explanation of the work producer or speaker.
● Wrongful Appropriation : Wrongful appropriation occurs when author(s) benefits another person's efforts and after a little change and manipulations in the research work, publish it on his/her own definitions
● False Attribution : It represents that a person is the author of a work but she/ he was not involved in the research.